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UPS系统
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UPS(Uninterruptible Power System/Uninterruptible Power Supply),即不(bu)间断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),是将(jiang)(jiang)蓄电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(多(duo)为铅酸免(mian)维护蓄电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池)与(yu)主机相(xiang)连接,通过(guo)主机逆变(bian)器(qi)(qi)等模块电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路将(jiang)(jiang)直(zhi)流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)转换城(cheng)市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)系统(tong)设备。主要用(yong)(yong)于给单台计算(suan)机、计算(suan)机网(wang)络系统(tong)或其它电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子设备如(ru)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁阀、压力变(bian)送器(qi)(qi)等提供(gong)稳定、不(bu)间断(duan)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力供(gong)应(ying)。当市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)输(shu)入正(zheng)常(chang)时,UPS 将(jiang)(jiang)市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)稳压后供(gong)应(ying)给负载使(shi)用(yong)(yong),此时的(de)(de)UPS就(jiu)是一台交(jiao)流(liu)式电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)稳压器(qi)(qi),同(tong)时它还向机内(nei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian);当市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)中断(duan)(事故停电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian))时, UPS 立即将(jiang)(jiang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)直(zhi)流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能,通过(guo)逆变(bian)器(qi)(qi)切(qie)换转换的(de)(de)方(fang)法向负载继续供(gong)应(ying)220V交(jiao)流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),使(shi)负载维持正(zheng)常(chang)工作并保(bao)护负载软、硬件不(bu)受损(sun)坏。UPS 设备通常(chang)对(dui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压过(guo)高(gao)或电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压过(guo)低都能提供(gong)保(bao)护。

特点

UPS是针对中(zhong)(zhong)国电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)(wang)环境(jing)和(he)网(wang)(wang)络监控(kong)及网(wang)(wang)络系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、医疗系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)等(deng)对电(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)的(de)可靠性要求(qiu),克服中(zhong)(zhong)、大型计算机(ji)网(wang)(wang)络系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)集中(zhong)(zhong)供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)所造(zao)成的(de)供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)(wang)环境(jing)日益恶劣的(de)问题(ti),以全新的(de)数字(zi)技术研制出的(de)第(di)三代工频(pin)纯在线式智能型UPS。直流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),是维(wei)持电(dian)(dian)(dian)路中(zhong)(zhong)形成稳恒电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)装(zhuang)置。如干电(dian)(dian)(dian)池、蓄电(dian)(dian)(dian)池、直流(liu)发电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)等(deng)。

UPS和直(zhi)流电(dian)(dian)源是企业重要的(de)供电(dian)(dian)保(bao)障设(she)(she)备,传(chuan)统的(de)维护管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)包括:①日常巡检外观,定期更换(huan)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)、滤波电(dian)(dian)容、风机等(deng)易损件(jian),大修时做(zuo)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)活化(hua)等(deng);②改造或采用换(huan)代(dai)设(she)(she)备,使用高(gao)级工具测(ce)试电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)性能。这种(zhong)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)方式企业投(tou)入成本高(gao),维护人员工作量大,不(bu)易实(shi)时掌握(wo)设(she)(she)备运(yun)行状态和关键数据,设(she)(she)备事故预防能力低。实(shi)施在线维护管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)可避(bi)免传(chuan)统方式的(de)不(bu)足(zu)之(zhi)处(chu),获得良好效益。

UPS的中(zhong)文意思为“不(bu)间(jian)断(duan)电(dian)源”,是英语“Uninterruptible Power System/Uninterruptible Power Supply”的缩(suo)写,它(ta)可以保(bao)障(zhang)计算机系统在(zai)停电(dian)之(zhi)后继续工(gong)作(zuo)一段时间(jian)以使(shi)(shi)用户能够紧急存盘,使(shi)(shi)用户不(bu)致因停电(dian)而影(ying)响工(gong)作(zuo)或丢(diu)失数据(ju)。

组成

UPS电(dian)(dian)源系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)由(you)(you)五部分(fen)组成:主路(lu)(lu)、旁路(lu)(lu)、电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)等电(dian)(dian)源输(shu)(shu)入电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu),进(jin)行AC/DC变(bian)(bian)换的(de)(de)(de)整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(REC),进(jin)行DC/AC变(bian)(bian)换的(de)(de)(de)逆(ni)变(bian)(bian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(INV),逆(ni)变(bian)(bian)和旁路(lu)(lu)输(shu)(shu)出(chu)切换电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)以(yi)及蓄能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)。其(qi)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)稳(wen)压功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)通常是由(you)(you)整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)(qi)完成的(de)(de)(de),整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)(qi)件采用(yong)可(ke)控(kong)硅或高频开(kai)关(guan)整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)(qi),本身具(ju)有可(ke)根据外(wai)电(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)控(kong)制输(shu)(shu)出(chu)幅度的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),从而当外(wai)电(dian)(dian)发生变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)时(shi)(该变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)应满足系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)要求),输(shu)(shu)出(chu)幅度基(ji)本不变(bian)(bian)的(de)(de)(de)整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)电(dian)(dian)压。净化(hua)(hua)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)由(you)(you)储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)来(lai)完成,由(you)(you)于(yu)整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)(qi)对(dui)瞬时(shi)脉(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)干(gan)(gan)扰不能(neng)(neng)消除(chu),整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)后(hou)的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)压仍存在干(gan)(gan)扰脉(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)。储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)除(chu)可(ke)存储(chu)(chu)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)直(zhi)(zhi)能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)外(wai),对(dui)整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)器(qi)(qi)(qi)来(lai)说(shuo)就像接了(le)(le)一只(zhi)大(da)容器(qi)(qi)(qi)电(dian)(dian)容器(qi)(qi)(qi),其(qi)等效电(dian)(dian)容量的(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)(xiao),与储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)容量大(da)小(xiao)(xiao)成正比(bi)。由(you)(you)于(yu)电(dian)(dian)容两端的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)压是不能(neng)(neng)突(tu)变(bian)(bian)的(de)(de)(de),即利用(yong)了(le)(le)电(dian)(dian)容器(qi)(qi)(qi)对(dui)脉(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)的(de)(de)(de)平滑特性消除(chu)了(le)(le)脉(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)干(gan)(gan)扰,起到了(le)(le)净化(hua)(hua)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),也称对(dui)干(gan)(gan)扰的(de)(de)(de)屏蔽。频率的(de)(de)(de)稳(wen)定则由(you)(you)变(bian)(bian)换器(qi)(qi)(qi)来(lai)完成,频率稳(wen)定度取决于(yu)变(bian)(bian)换器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)振荡频率的(de)(de)(de)稳(wen)定程度。为方便UPS电(dian)(dian)源系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)日(ri)常操作(zuo)与维护(hu),设计了(le)(le)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)工作(zuo)开(kai)关(guan),主机(ji)自检故障后(hou)的(de)(de)(de)自动(dong)旁路(lu)(lu)开(kai)关(guan),检修旁路(lu)(lu)开(kai)关(guan)等开(kai)关(guan)控(kong)制。

在电(dian)(dian)网电(dian)(dian)压工(gong)作正(zheng)常时,给负载供电(dian)(dian)如(ru)图1-1所(suo)示,而且,同时给储能(neng)电(dian)(dian)池充电(dian)(dian);当(dang)突发停(ting)电(dian)(dian)时,UPS电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)开(kai)始(shi)工(gong)作,由储能(neng)电(dian)(dian)池供给负载所(suo)需(xu)电(dian)(dian)源(yuan),维持正(zheng)常的生产(如(ru)粗黑→所(suo)示);当(dang)由于生产需(xu)要,负载严重过载时,由电(dian)(dian)网电(dian)(dian)压经整流直接给负载供电(dian)(dian)(如(ru)虚线所(suo)示)。

工作过程

当(dang)(dang)(dang)市电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)正常为(wei)380/220VAC时(shi)(shi),直流主回路(lu)(lu)有(you)(you)直流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya),供(gong)给DC-AC交流逆变器(qi)(qi),输出(chu)稳定(ding)的220V或380V交流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya),同(tong)时(shi)(shi)市电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)经整流后对电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。当(dang)(dang)(dang)任(ren)何时(shi)(shi)候市电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)欠压(ya)或突然(ran)掉电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),则由(you)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)组通(tong)过隔(ge)离(li)二极管(guan)开(kai)关向直流回路(lu)(lu)馈送电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能。从电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)到电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)没(mei)有(you)(you)切换时(shi)(shi)间。当(dang)(dang)(dang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)能量即将(jiang)耗尽时(shi)(shi),不(bu)间断电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源发出(chu)声光(guang)报警,并在(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)下(xia)限点停止逆变器(qi)(qi)工作,长(zhang)鸣告警。不(bu)间断电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源还有(you)(you)过载(zai)保(bao)护(hu)功能,当(dang)(dang)(dang)发生超载(zai)(150%负(fu)载(zai))时(shi)(shi),跳(tiao)到旁(pang)路(lu)(lu)状(zhuang)态,并在(zai)负(fu)载(zai)正常时(shi)(shi)自动返(fan)回。当(dang)(dang)(dang)发生严重超载(zai)(超过200%额定(ding)负(fu)载(zai))时(shi)(shi),不(bu)间断电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源立即停止逆变器(qi)(qi)输出(chu)并跳(tiao)到旁(pang)路(lu)(lu)状(zhuang)态,此(ci)时(shi)(shi)前面(mian)输入空气开(kai)关也(ye)可能跳(tiao)闸(zha)。消除故(gu)障后,只要合上开(kai)关,重新开(kai)机即开(kai)始恢(hui)复工作。

不间(jian)断电(dian)源的发展

飞轮式不间断电源

在使用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)时(shi)代之(zhi)前,不(bu)(bu)(bu)间(jian)断(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)曾(ceng)经使用(yong)飞(fei)轮(lun)和(he)内燃机(ji)为(wei)负载提(ti)供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能供(gong)应(ying),这种不(bu)(bu)(bu)间(jian)断(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)被称(cheng)为(wei)飞(fei)轮(lun)式或旋(xuan)转(zhuan)式不(bu)(bu)(bu)间(jian)断(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)。飞(fei)轮(lun)式不(bu)(bu)(bu)间(jian)断(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)由整流(liu)器、直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)、飞(fei)轮(lun)、柴油(you)(you)机(ji)(或汽油(you)(you)机(ji))及发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)等组成。在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,由整流(liu)器提(ti)供(gong)的(de)(de)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)驱(qu)动(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)带(dai)(dai)动(dong)飞(fei)轮(lun)旋(xuan)转(zhuan),并且带(dai)(dai)发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)为(wei)负载供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。由于飞(fei)轮(lun)的(de)(de)惯性作用(yong),发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)转(zhuan)速(su)可以保持均衡,此时(shi)不(bu)(bu)(bu)间(jian)断(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)起过滤(lv)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)干扰的(de)(de)作用(yong)。当电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)断(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)后,飞(fei)轮(lun)继续带(dai)(dai)动(dong)发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)的(de)(de)转(zhuan)子(zi)旋(xuan)转(zhuan),同时(shi)启动(dong)柴油(you)(you)机(ji)带(dai)(dai)动(dong)发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)发(fa)(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),替代原有电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)为(wei)负载供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。

由(you)于(yu)飞(fei)轮(lun)式不间断(duan)电(dian)源使用内(nei)燃机(ji)提供电(dian)力(li),会(hui)产生较大(da)的(de)噪音同(tong)时体积也(ye)较大(da),因此目前(qian)一般(ban)仅被用于(yu)应急(ji)情况(kuang)和一些(xie)自然(ran)状况(kuang)恶劣的(de)场(chang)合,通(tong)常情况(kuang)下不间断(duan)电(dian)源会(hui)使用蓄电(dian)池来(lai)提供电(dian)力(li)。

蓄电池式不间断电源

自二十世纪六十年(nian)代美国通用(yong)电气(qi)公(gong)司研究生产不间(jian)(jian)断电源(yuan)以来(lai),不间(jian)(jian)断电源(yuan)一直在被改进,但是其(qi)基本原理没(mei)有重大变(bian)化(hua)。

现代的不(bu)间(jian)断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源由电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池组、逆变(bian)器和控(kong)制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路组成,一(yi)端连(lian)(lian)接电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)另一(yi)端连(lian)(lian)接电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器负载。在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压正常的情况下,不(bu)间(jian)断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源利用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源为(wei)自身(shen)充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)出(chu)现异常的时候(hou),不(bu)间(jian)断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源将存储(chu)于电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池中的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能释放,供负载使用。它按工作方式(shi)(shi)通常分为(wei)在线式(shi)(shi)和后备式(shi)(shi)(亦称为(wei)离线式(shi)(shi))两种;按输(shu)出(chu)波(bo)形可分为(wei)正弦(xian)型(xing)、近似(si)正弦(xian)型(xing)(用阶梯方波(bo)来拟(ni)合正弦(xian)波(bo))等。[3]

UPS优点

不间(jian)断电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)优点,在于它的(de)(de)(de)不间(jian)断供电(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)力(li)。在市电(dian)(dian)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)输(shu)入(ru)正常(chang)时,UPS把交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)整流(liu)(liu)成直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian),然后(hou)再(zai)把直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)逆变成稳定无杂质的(de)(de)(de)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian),给(ji)后(hou)级负载使用(yong)(yong)。一旦市电(dian)(dian)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)输(shu)入(ru)异(yi)常(chang),比如欠压了或(huo)者停(ting)电(dian)(dian)了又或(huo)者频率异(yi)常(chang)了,那么UPS会启用(yong)(yong)备用(yong)(yong)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)-蓄电(dian)(dian)池,UPS的(de)(de)(de)整流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)路会关断,相应的(de)(de)(de),会把蓄电(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)(de)直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)逆变成稳定无杂质的(de)(de)(de)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian),继(ji)续(xu)给(ji)后(hou)级负载使用(yong)(yong)。这就是(shi)UPS不间(jian)断供电(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)力(li)的(de)(de)(de)由来。

当(dang)然,UPS的(de)不间(jian)断供电(dian)时间(jian)不是无限的(de),这(zhei)个时间(jian)受制于(yu)蓄电(dian)池自(zi)身储(chu)存能量的(de)大小。如(ru)果发(fa)生交流停电(dian),那么在UPS的(de)蓄电(dian)池供电(dian)的(de)宝(bao)贵(gui)时间(jian)内(nei),您需(xu)要做的(de)就是赶紧(jin)恢复交流电(dian),比如(ru)启用(yong)备(bei)用(yong)交流电(dian)回(hui)路、启用(yong)油(you)机发(fa)电(dian),实在不行,就只能紧(jin)急存盘(pan),保存劳动成果,等(deng)待交流电(dian)恢复正常后再继(ji)续。

应用

不间断电(dian)源现已广泛(fan)应用于:矿山、航天(tian)、工(gong)业、通(tong)讯(xun)、国防(fang)、医院、计算机业务(wu)终端(duan)、网络服务(wu)器、网络设(she)备(bei)、数据存储设(she)备(bei)、应急照明系统(tong)、铁路、航运、交(jiao)通(tong)、电(dian)厂(chang)、变(bian)电(dian)站(zhan)、核电(dian)站(zhan)、消防(fang)安全报警系统(tong)、无线通(tong)讯(xun)系统(tong)、程控(kong)交(jiao)换机、移动通(tong)讯(xun)、太阳能(neng)(neng)储存能(neng)(neng)量(liang)转换设(she)备(bei)、控(kong)制(zhi)设(she)备(bei)及其紧(jin)急保护系统(tong)、个人计算机等领域。

选购

根据设备(bei)(bei)的情况、用电(dian)(dian)环境以(yi)及想(xiang)达(da)到(dao)的电(dian)(dian)源保护目的,可(ke)以(yi)选择适合(he)的UPS;例如对内置开关电(dian)(dian)源的小功(gong)率设备(bei)(bei)一般(ban)可(ke)选用后备(bei)(bei)式UPS,在用电(dian)(dian)环境较恶(e)劣的地方应选用在线互动式或在线式UPS,而对不允许有间(jian)断时(shi)间(jian)或时(shi)刻要求正(zheng)弦(xian)波交流电(dian)(dian)的设备(bei)(bei),就只能选用在线式UPS。

首先要确(que)定您的(de)(de)设(she)备(bei)是多大(da)功率(lv)(lv)的(de)(de),一般来讲普通PC机或工(gong)控(kong)机的(de)(de)功率(lv)(lv)在(zai)200W左右,苹(ping)果机在(zai)300W左右,服务器在(zai)300W与600W之间,其他(ta)设(she)备(bei)的(de)(de)功率(lv)(lv)数值(zhi)可以参考该设(she)备(bei)的(de)(de)说明书。

其次应了解(jie)UPS的(de)(de)额定功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)有两种(zhong)表(biao)示方法:视(shi)在(zai)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(单位VA)与实际输(shu)出功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)(单位W),由于无功(gong)(gong)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)的(de)(de)存在(zai)所(suo)以(yi)造(zao)成了这种(zhong)差别,两者的(de)(de)换算(suan)关系(xi)为:视(shi)在(zai)功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)*功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)因数=实际输(shu)出功(gong)(gong)率(lv)(lv)

后备(bei)式、在(zai)线互动(dong)式的(de)功率因数(shu)在(zai)0.5与0.7之间(jian),在(zai)线式的(de)功率因数(shu)一般是0.8。

给设备配(pei)UPS时应以UPS的实(shi)际输出功率为匹(pi)配(pei)的依据,有些经销商有意或(huo)无意会(hui)混淆(VA)与(W)的区别,这点要提请用户注(zhu)意。

根(gen)据使用环(huan)境(jing)选择可(ke)以分(fen)为工业(ye)(ye)级UPS和商(shang)业(ye)(ye)级UPS,工业(ye)(ye)级UPS适(shi)应于环(huan)境(jing)比较恶劣的的地方,商(shang)业(ye)(ye)级UPS对环(huan)境(jing)的要求比较高。

UPS通常分为工(gong)频(pin)机(ji)和高频(pin)机(ji)两(liang)种。工(gong)频(pin)机(ji)由可控硅SCR整(zheng)流(liu)器,IGBT逆变器,旁路和工(gong)频(pin)升压(ya)隔离变压(ya)器组成。因其整(zheng)流(liu)器和变压(ya)器工(gong)作频(pin)率均为工(gong)频(pin)50Hz,顾(gu)名(ming)思义叫工(gong)频(pin)UPS。

高(gao)频机通常由IGBT高(gao)频整流(liu)(liu)器(qi),电池变(bian)换(huan)器(qi),逆变(bian)器(qi)和旁路组成(cheng),IGBT可(ke)以通过控制加(jia)在其门(men)极的驱动来控制IGBT的开(kai)通与关(guan)断,IGBT整流(liu)(liu)器(qi)开(kai)关(guan)频率(lv)通常在几K到几十KHz,甚至高(gao)达(da)上百KHz,相(xiang)对于50Hz工频, 称之为(wei)高(gao)频UPS。

随着电力电子技术的(de)(de)发展和(he)高频功(gong)率(lv)器(qi)件(jian)不(bu)断问世。中(zhong)小(xiao)功(gong)率(lv)段的(de)(de)UPS产品正逐(zhu)步高频化,高频UPS有功(gong)率(lv)密度(du)大、体积(ji)小(xiao)、重(zhong)量轻的(de)(de)特点。但在高频UPS功(gong)率(lv)段向中(zhong)大功(gong)率(lv)过渡推进的(de)(de)过程中(zhong)。高频拓扑UPS在使(shi)(shi)用过程中(zhong)暴露出(chu)一(yi)些固有缺点,并影响到UPS的(de)(de)安全(quan)使(shi)(shi)用和(he)运(yun)行。

采购要点

一(yi)、稳定性

因(yin)为(wei)UPS是(shi)起(qi)保障作用(yong)(yong)的(de),因(yin)此(ci)它自身的(de)稳定(ding)性更为(wei)重中之(zhi)重。所(suo)以(yi),当(dang)用(yong)(yong)户选购UPS产(chan)(chan)品的(de)时候,不管(guan)是(shi)中小(xiao)型企业用(yong)(yong)户还是(shi)其他,首先必(bi)须考虑UPS产(chan)(chan)品的(de)质量,产(chan)(chan)品的(de)质量是(shi)用(yong)(yong)户选用(yong)(yong)产(chan)(chan)品的(de)第(di)一要则(ze),通过质量可(ke)以(yi)决(jue)定(ding)你(ni)会(hui)选择(ze)什么品牌的(de)产(chan)(chan)品,因(yin)为(wei)J9九游会AG 说(shuo)品牌之(zhi)所(suo)以(yi)称(cheng)为(wei)品牌,是(shi)因(yin)为(wei)它被很多(duo)人验(yan)证过、认可(ke)了,这是(shi)第(di)一。

二、后备(bei)时间(jian)

后备时间是(shi)(shi)很多用户(hu)(hu)在购买UPS产(chan)品的(de)(de)(de)时候会(hui)关注比较(jiao)多的(de)(de)(de)一个指标。从学术(shu)角度讲,UPS就是(shi)(shi)停电(dian)后继(ji)续为用户(hu)(hu)供电(dian),首先这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)一个物理学,停电(dian)供电(dian)只是(shi)(shi)它的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)能之(zhi)一,功(gong)能之(zhi)二(er)则是(shi)(shi)保证用户(hu)(hu)能够有一个干净的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)源,保护用户(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)设备。

三(san)、确(que)定UPS的类型(xing)

根据(ju)负载(zai)对(dui)输出稳(wen)定(ding)度、切换时间(jian)、输出波形要(yao)求(qiu)来确定(ding)是选择在线式、在线互动(dong)式、后备式以及正弦波、方波等类型的(de)UPS。

在(zai)线式(shi)UPS的(de)输出稳定度、瞬间响应能力比另外(wai)两种(zhong)强,对(dui)非线性(xing)负载(zai)的(de)适应能力也较(jiao)(jiao)强。对(dui)一些(xie)(xie)较(jiao)(jiao)精密(mi)的(de)设备(bei)、较(jiao)(jiao)重要(yao)(yao)的(de)设备(bei)要(yao)(yao)采用在(zai)线式(shi)UPS。在(zai)一些(xie)(xie)市(shi)电(dian)波动范围比较(jiao)(jiao)大(da)的(de)地区,避免使用互(hu)动式(shi)和后(hou)备(bei)式(shi)。如(ru)果要(yao)(yao)使用发电(dian)机配短延(yan)时UPS,推荐用在(zai)线式(shi)UPS。

四、服务能力

每个用(yong)(yong)户(hu)的(de)(de)网络特点、电力环境都不相(xiang)同,电源保护要(yao)求(qiu)也(ye)随之变化。用(yong)(yong)户(hu)在使用(yong)(yong)UPS时可能遇到种种问题也(ye)不尽(jin)相(xiang)同,用(yong)(yong)户(hu)希望自(zi)己购置的(de)(de)是完全适合实(shi)际需求(qiu)的(de)(de)产品和服(fu)(fu)务,而(er)且(qie)关心设备(bei)投资(zi)的(de)(de)周期、长期回报率及投资(zi)风险。而(er)现实(shi)是,绝大多数用(yong)(yong)户(hu)缺乏这(zhei)方面(mian)的(de)(de)专(zhuan)业人员,所以,优质的(de)(de)服(fu)(fu)务体系和主动的(de)(de)服(fu)(fu)务态度也(ye)成为用(yong)(yong)户(hu)选购UPS时必(bi)须考虑(lv)的(de)(de)一个重要(yao)因素。

五、附件功能

为了提高系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)可(ke)(ke)靠性,建议(yi)采用(yong)UPS热(re)备份(fen)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),可(ke)(ke)以(yi)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)串联(lian)热(re)备份(fen)或(huo)并联(lian)热(re)备份(fen)。小容量的(de)(de)UPS(1 ~2KVA)还可(ke)(ke)以(yi)选用(yong)冗(rong)余开(kai)关。可(ke)(ke)以(yi)选用(yong)远(yuan)程监控面(mian)板,实(shi)现(xian)在远(yuan)端监视和控制UPS工作。可(ke)(ke)以(yi)选用(yong)监控软件,实(shi)现(xian)计算机和UPS之间的(de)(de)智能化管理。可(ke)(ke)以(yi)选用(yong)网络适配器,实(shi)现(xian)UPS的(de)(de)网络化管理(基于SNMP)。在某些(xie)多雨多雷(lei)地区,可(ke)(ke)以(yi)配用(yong)防雷(lei)器。还要考(kao)虑(lv)是否能够(gou)对(dui)网络的(de)(de)使用(yong)和对(dui)外设进行(xing)保(bao)护。因(yin)(yin)为外设越(yue)来越(yue)来齐(qi)全(如(ru)打(da)印机、扫描(miao)仪),这部(bu)分设备也(ye)同样需要保(bao)护。是否具备电缆线浪涌(yong)保(bao)护和数据浪涌(yong)保(bao)护?在无人(ren)值班时能否进行(xing)自动的(de)(de)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)关机?另外,因(yin)(yin)为用(yong)户商(shang)用(yong)的(de)(de)桌面(mian)的(de)(de)UPS多放在自己(ji)的(de)(de)身边,所以(yi)在产品的(de)(de)设计风格、制造工艺方面(mian)也(ye)是需要考(kao)虑(lv)的(de)(de)。 [3]

区别

UPS的"集中式"与"分散式"配备(bei)方式有(you)什么区(qu)别 

如果(guo)需要配UPS的设(she)备较(jiao)多,您可(ke)以采用"集中(zhong)(zhong)式"或"分散(san)式"两(liang)种配备方式;所谓"集中(zhong)(zhong)式",就(jiu)是(shi)用一台(tai)较(jiao)大功率的UPS负(fu)载所有设(she)备,如果(guo)设(she)备之间距离(li)较(jiao)远,还需要单独铺设(she)电线,大型数据(ju)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)、控制中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)常采用这(zhei)种方式,虽然便于管理,但(dan)成(cheng)本较(jiao)高。

"分散式(shi)"配(pei)备(bei)方(fang)式(shi)是现 在(zai)比较流行的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)种(zhong)配(pei)备(bei)方(fang)式(shi),就是根(gen)据设备(bei)的(de)(de)(de)需要分别配(pei)备(bei)适(shi)合的(de)(de)(de)UPS,譬如对一(yi)个(ge)(ge)局域网的(de)(de)(de)电源保护,可(ke)以采取(qu)给服务器(qi)配(pei)备(bei)在(zai)线式(shi)UPS,各个(ge)(ge)节点分别配(pei)备(bei)后(hou)备(bei)式(shi)UPS的(de)(de)(de)方(fang)案,这样配(pei)备(bei)的(de)(de)(de)成本较低并且可(ke)靠(kao)性高。

这两种供电(dian)方(fang)式的优缺点如(ru)下:

(1)集中供电(dian)方式(shi) 便于管理 布线要(yao)求(qiu)高 可靠性低 成本高。

(2)分散供(gong)电方式(shi) 不便管理 布(bu)线要求低 可靠(kao)性高 成本低。

注意事项

1)UPS的使用环(huan)境应(ying)注意通风良好(hao),利(li)于散热,并保持环(huan)境的清(qing)洁。

2)切勿(wu)带感性负载,如点钞机、日光(guang)灯、空(kong)调等(deng),以免(mian)造成损坏。

3)UPS的输(shu)出(chu)负载控(kong)制在60%左右为最(zui)佳,可靠性最(zui)高。

4)UPS带(dai)载(zai)过轻(如(ru)1000VA的UPS带(dai)100VA负载(zai))有(you)可能(neng)造成电(dian)(dian)池的深度放电(dian)(dian),会降低电(dian)(dian)池的使用寿命,应(ying)尽(jin)量(liang)避免。

5)适(shi)当的放(fang)电(dian),有助于电(dian)池(chi)的激活,如(ru)长(zhang)期不(bu)停市(shi)电(dian),每隔三个月(yue)应人(ren)为断掉市(shi)电(dian)用UPS带负载放(fang)电(dian)一次,这样可以延长(zhang)电(dian)池(chi)的使(shi)用寿命。

6)对于多(duo)数小(xiao)型UPS,上班再(zai)开(kai)UPS,开(kai)机时(shi)要避免带载启动,下(xia)班时(shi)应关闭UPS;对于网络机房的(de)UPS,由于多(duo)数网络是24小(xiao)时(shi)工作的(de),所以UPS也必须全天候(hou)运(yun)行。

7)UPS放电后应及时充电,避免电池因过度自放电而(er)损坏。

使用技巧

不(bu)间(jian)(jian)断电源-如(ru)何延长(zhang)UPS的供电时间(jian)(jian)?

延长不间断电源系(xi)统的供(gong)电时间有两种方法:

1.外接大容(rong)量电(dian)池(chi)(chi)组(zu):可(ke)根据所需(xu)供电(dian)时间(jian)(jian)外接相应容(rong)量的电(dian)池(chi)(chi)组(zu),但(dan)须(xu)注意此种方法会造成电(dian)池(chi)(chi)组(zu)充电(dian)时间(jian)(jian)的相对增(zeng)加,另外也会增(zeng)加占地面积(ji)与(yu)维护成本,故需(xu)认真评估。

2.选购容量(liang)较大的(de)(de)不间(jian)断(duan)电源系统:此方法不仅可减少维护(hu)成本,若遇(yu)到负载设备扩充,较大容量(liang)的(de)(de)不断(duan)电系统仍可立即运作。

UPS电源系统开、关机

第一次(ci)开机

(1)按以下顺序(xu)合闸:储能电池开(kai)关(guan)(guan)→自动旁路开(kai)关(guan)(guan)→输出开(kai)关(guan)(guan)依(yi)次(ci)置于“ON"。

(2)按UPS启(qi)动面(mian)板“开”键,UPS电(dian)源(yuan)系统将徐徐启(qi)动,“逆(ni)变”指示灯亮,延时1分(fen)钟后,“旁路(lu)”灯熄灭,UPS转为逆(ni)变供电(dian),完成开机。

经空(kong)载(zai)运(yun)行约10分钟后,按照负载(zai)功率由大到小的开(kai)机(ji)顺序启动负载(zai)。

日常开机

只需按(an)UPS面板“开(kai)”键,约20分(fen)钟后,即(ji)可开(kai)启电脑或其它仪器使用。通常等UPS启动进入稳定工作后,方可打开(kai)负(fu)载(zai)设备电源开(kai)关(guan)(注:手动维护开(kai)关(guan)在(zai)UPS正常运行时,呈“OFF"状(zhuang)态)。

关机

先(xian)将(jiang)电脑或(huo)其(qi)它仪(yi)器关(guan)闭,让UPS空载运行10分钟,待机(ji)内热(re)量排出后,再(zai)按面板(ban)“关(guan)”键。

发展特点

(1)高效(xiao)率、高可靠性

由于(yu)IT 设备(bei)不(bu)断增多(duo)、用电(dian)量(liang)加(jia)剧(ju)、机(ji)房面积紧张、低(di)耗节(jie)能(neng)需(xu)求等客观因素的(de)(de)存在(zai),高效率(lv)、高可(ke)靠性(xing)的(de)(de)UPS 技(ji)术(shu)倍受关(guan)注。为提(ti)高UPS 运(yun)行(xing)(xing)效率(lv),高性(xing)能(neng)电(dian)力电(dian)子(zi)器(qi)件(jian)不(bu)断被研发成(cheng)功(gong)并(bing)投入实际(ji)应用,如IGBT、MOSFET、GTR、智能(neng)功(gong)率(lv)模块IPM、MOS 控制(zhi)晶闸管(guan)MCT 等,变(bian)流技(ji)术(shu)也需(xu)要随着(zhe)电(dian)力电(dian)子(zi)器(qi)件(jian)而更(geng)新(xin)。此外,业界正(zheng)逐步推广UPS 内部(bu)多(duo)模块冗余(yu)(yu)并(bing)联运(yun)行(xing)(xing)、甚至多(duo)台(tai)UPS 组成(cheng)的(de)(de)系统冗余(yu)(yu)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)技(ji)术(shu),在(zai)并(bing)联运(yun)行(xing)(xing)中,当单一模块或单机(ji)发生故障时,其功(gong)能(neng)则自(zi)动转由冗余(yu)(yu)单元承(cheng)担,大大提(ti)高了UPS 供(gong)电(dian)系统的(de)(de)可(ke)靠性(xing)。

(2)大功(gong)率(lv)化、模块(kuai)化

由于(yu)IT 行(xing)业(ye)迅猛发(fa)展,数(shu)据(ju)中心的数(shu)据(ju)量也在以爆(bao)炸式的速度持续增(zeng)长,随之而来功率消耗增(zeng)大。UPS 一方(fang)面(mian)朝(chao)着更(geng)大功率的方(fang)向发(fa)展,另一方(fang)面(mian)为应对不(bu)间(jian)断电(dian)源容量分(fen)期扩充(chong)的需(xu)求,产品模(mo)块化已是(shi)不(bu)可阻(zu)挡的趋势。更(geng)个性化的用户需(xu)求、更(geng)庞(pang)大的数(shu)据(ju)中心规模(mo)及(ji)更(geng)高的维护成本使得UPS 已不(bu)再是(shi)单纯(chun)的不(bu)间(jian)断供电(dian)设备,针对不(bu)同(tong)行(xing)业(ye)领域的全套电(dian)源供应与管理解(jie)决方(fang)案(an)才将倍受市场青睐(lai)。

行业内针对模块化UPS 解决方(fang)案(an)基本(ben)形成了(le)两(liang)个(ge)方(fang)向:一是单(dan)机(ji)冗(rong)余化,即通过多模块冗(rong)余并(bing)联构(gou)成大功(gong)率(lv)单(dan)相或者三(san)相UPS,其可用(yong)性指标(biao)得(de)到了(le)质的飞(fei)跃;二(er)是全模块化结(jie)构(gou),即一个(ge)模块是一台完整的UPS,通过冗(rong)余并(bing)联直接(jie)构(gou)成中等功(gong)率(lv)UPS,在(zai)兼顾可用(yong)性指标(biao)的同时还具有良好的性价比。

(3)高频化

相(xiang)(xiang)比传统的工频(pin)UPS,高频(pin)UPS 采(cai)用(yong)功(gong)率(lv)因数校正和高频(pin)软开关技术(shu),省去了工频(pin)电(dian)能(neng)(neng)转换环节,因此运(yun)行(xing)效(xiao)率(lv)更高、对(dui)电(dian)网的谐波污染(ran)及无(wu)功(gong)消耗极小,完全能(neng)(neng)够满足国内外相(xiang)(xiang)关电(dian)力行(xing)业的标准(zhun)要(yao)求。此外,高频(pin)电(dian)能(neng)(neng)变换装置在减小磁性部件体积和重量、降低制造成本、遏(e)制运(yun)行(xing)噪音(yin)、节能(neng)(neng)环保等方面效(xiao)果显著,因此越来(lai)越受到用(yong)户认(ren)可(ke)。

(4)数字化(hua)、智能化(hua)、网络化(hua)

数(shu)(shu)字(zi)化技(ji)(ji)术(shu)的(de)(de)(de)优(you)势在当今信(xin)息社会中(zhong)愈加明显(xian)。在UPS 产(chan)(chan)品(pin)的(de)(de)(de)研发和(he)制(zhi)造过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)采(cai)(cai)用全(quan)数(shu)(shu)字(zi)化技(ji)(ji)术(shu)可有(you)效缩小产(chan)(chan)品(pin)体积、降低生产(chan)(chan)成本、提高产(chan)(chan)品(pin)的(de)(de)(de)可靠性及(ji)(ji)针对(dui)用户(hu)需求(qiu)的(de)(de)(de)匹配性;而(er)数(shu)(shu)字(zi)化控(kong)制(zhi)技(ji)(ji)术(shu)则会在UPS 系(xi)统(tong)(tong)运行(xing)(xing)(xing)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)准确及(ji)(ji)时(shi)地进行(xing)(xing)(xing)信(xin)号(hao)采(cai)(cai)样、处理、控(kong)制(zhi)(包括电压电流环等(deng))、通信(xin)等(deng)工(gong)(gong)作,并(bing)将各环节的(de)(de)(de)控(kong)制(zhi)参数(shu)(shu)优(you)化统(tong)(tong)一后发送给(ji)UPS 综(zong)合控(kong)制(zhi)单元,从而(er)使UPS 系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)运行(xing)(xing)(xing)更具效率,实现(xian)(xian)更简单、更稳(wen)定的(de)(de)(de)通信(xin)与(yu)均流,并(bing)获(huo)取优(you)良的(de)(de)(de)电磁(ci)兼(jian)容指标。智能化主(zhu)要(yao)贯穿于UPS 系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)控(kong)制(zhi)、检测与(yu)通信(xin)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong),完全(quan)由计算(suan)机管理。计算(suan)机及(ji)(ji)其外设(she)(she)能自(zi)主(zhu)应付一些可预(yu)见的(de)(de)(de)问题,进行(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)动处理和(he)调整,发出(chu)预(yu)警(jing)、告警(jing)信(xin)息等(deng)。通信(xin)设(she)(she)施所处环境日趋复杂,增大了维护(hu)难度,对(dui)电源设(she)(she)备的(de)(de)(de)网(wang)络(luo)(luo)化监(jian)控(kong)管理提出(chu)了新的(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求(qiu)。网(wang)络(luo)(luo)化技(ji)(ji)术(shu)可通过(guo)(guo)对(dui)UPS 配置(zhi)与(yu)计算(suan)机互连(lian)的(de)(de)(de)软硬件接口,实现(xian)(xian)计算(suan)机网(wang)络(luo)(luo)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)及(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)据资料的(de)(de)(de)双重保护(hu)、网(wang)络(luo)(luo)远(yuan)程(cheng)事件记录(lu)和(he)监(jian)测控(kong)制(zhi)、故障告警(jing)、参数(shu)(shu)自(zi)动测试分(fen)析等(deng)功能,使维护(hu)人员更为轻松、安全(quan)、高效地通过(guo)(guo)互联网(wang)进行(xing)(xing)(xing)数(shu)(shu)据查询、控(kong)制(zhi)等(deng)维护(hu)工(gong)(gong)作。

(5)绿色、节能、环保

在世(shi)界能(neng)源格局变(bian)化加剧(ju),国际油价剧(ju)烈震(zhen)荡,全球能(neng)源供应(ying)紧(jin)张的(de)形势下,节能(neng)环保已(yi)成(cheng)为UPS 厂商进行产品(pin)(pin)技术(shu)创新(xin)的(de)指导原则(ze)。对(dui)UPS 而言,输(shu)入功率(lv)因数的(de)高低表明其吸收电网有(you)功功率(lv)的(de)能(neng)力及对(dui)电网影响的(de)程(cheng)度(du)(du)。降低电源的(de)输(shu)入谐波,不但能(neng)改善(shan)UPS 对(dui)电网的(de)负载特性,减少给(ji)电网带来的(de)严重污染,也能(neng)降低对(dui)其他网络(luo)设备的(de)谐波干扰(rao)。已(yi)有(you)许多UPS 厂商推(tui)出的(de)产品(pin)(pin)功率(lv)因数接近1,可(ke)最大限度(du)(du)地(di)减少无功功率(lv)的(de)消(xiao)耗。

行业利害因素

1、有(you)利(li)因(yin)素

(1)市(shi)场需(xu)求不断扩大

UPS 广泛(fan)应用于信息(xi)(xi)、通(tong)信、电(dian)力、金融(rong)、政府、制造业、交通(tong)运(yun)输、医(yi)疗卫生、公(gong)共(gong)(gong)安(an)全等(deng)众多(duo)领(ling)域。随着信息(xi)(xi)产业在(zai)国民(min)经济中的(de)(de)地位越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)重(zhong)要,我国将进一步加大(da)在(zai)各(ge)行业特别是信息(xi)(xi)、通(tong)信、电(dian)力、金融(rong)、政府、制造业、交通(tong)运(yun)输、医(yi)疗卫生、公(gong)共(gong)(gong)安(an)全等(deng)领(ling)域的(de)(de)信息(xi)(xi)化建(jian)(jian)设投资,下游领(ling)域信息(xi)(xi)化建(jian)(jian)设步伐的(de)(de)加快(kuai),必(bi)然带动市场对UPS 的(de)(de)需求。

(2)国际产业转(zhuan)移的(de)发展机遇

近(jin) 年(nian)来,发(fa)达国家和(he)地区加速向我国进(jin)行制造业转移,国际(ji)著名(ming)厂商(shang)如伊顿、施(shi)耐(nai)德、艾默生、西门子(zi)等均(jun)在我国投资设(she)厂。前瞻性较强(qiang)的本(ben)土企业将充分把(ba)握(wo)住国际(ji)产(chan)业转移的大好机(ji)遇,学习(xi)世界(jie)前沿技术和(he)管理理念、引进(jin)高(gao)端人(ren)才和(he)先(xian)进(jin)设(she)备、扩大生产(chan)规模(mo)、提升产(chan)品质量、降(jiang)低成本(ben)、积(ji)累经(jing)验,逐步提高(gao)国际(ji)市场份额。

(3)工业化(hua)、信息化(hua)建(jian)设促进技术(shu)更新

我(wo)国正处于(yu)工业(ye)化、信息化建设(she)的关(guan)键时期(qi),众多行(xing)业(ye)领域对UPS 的巨(ju)大需(xu)求量促使厂商们(men)在高效、节能、环保等方面(mian)进行(xing)技术(shu)创新,不断推(tui)出(chu)新产品,在满(man)足(zu)不同行(xing)业(ye)需(xu)求、促进国民经济发展的同时,也推(tui)动了电力电子技术(shu)的进步,激发了UPS 行(xing)业(ye)内的良性竞争(zheng)。

(4)产业政策(ce)扶持

电力电子装(zhuang)置制造业(ye)属于(yu)国家重点扶(fu)持的(de)高新技术产业(ye),近 年来,国家颁布了一系列发(fa)展(zhan)政策和发(fa)展(zhan)规(gui)划以鼓励本行(xing)业(ye)的(de)发(fa)展(zhan),具体情(qing)况请参阅本章节“二、本公司所处(chu)行(xing)业(ye)的(de)基本情(qing)况——(一)行(xing)业(ye)主(zhu)管部门、监管体制与主(zhu)要(yao)法律法规(gui)及(ji)政策”。

2、不利因素

(1)技术基础薄弱

UPS制(zhi)(zhi)造商只有掌握核心(xin)技(ji)术(shu)(shu),并具备自主研发(fa)及(ji)创新能(neng)(neng)力(li)(li),才(cai)能(neng)(neng)取得发(fa)展的(de)主动权(quan)。目(mu)前国(guo)内(nei)多数中小(xiao)规模厂家普遍(bian)缺乏大功率电(dian)源控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)、电(dian)路保护技(ji)术(shu)(shu)、系统集成技(ji)术(shu)(shu)等核心(xin)技(ji)术(shu)(shu),部件(jian)和整机的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)造工艺水平距离(li)标准化大批量生产(chan)的(de)要求较(jiao)远,在设(she)(she)计能(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)、工艺技(ji)术(shu)(shu)及(ji)新材料(liao)应用研究等方面(mian)也与国(guo)际先进水平差(cha)距较(jiao)大。此外,国(guo)内(nei)厂商对于信息(xi)化建(jian)设(she)(she)的(de)投入(ru)大都停留在基础硬件(jian)方面(mian),软件(jian)投入(ru)相对不足(zu),对现有网络和信息(xi)资源的(de)利用不够,导致产(chan)品(pin)竞争力(li)(li)不强,企业发(fa)展受到限制(zhi)(zhi)。

(2)原材料(liao)价格波动,少数电力电子器件依(yi)赖(lai)进口

近 年来,国际市场的(de)铜(tong)、铅、钢(gang)材(cai)等基础原材(cai)料价(jia)格(ge)波(bo)(bo)动较大(da)。尽管可与下游客户协商调(diao)整价(jia)格(ge),进行(xing)成本(ben)转(zhuan)移,但总体而言,原材(cai)料价(jia)格(ge)的(de)波(bo)(bo)动将为UPS厂(chang)商带来一定(ding)的(de)成本(ben)控制压(ya)力。此外(wai)(wai),生产高端(duan)UPS 产品所必需的(de)部分电力电子器件(jian)主要依赖(lai)进口,生产成本(ben)偏(pian)高、外(wai)(wai)币汇(hui)率波(bo)(bo)动等因素(su)也会(hui)在一定(ding)程(cheng)度上阻碍本(ben)土厂(chang)商的(de)发展。

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